You may have encountered people who graduated high school but do not write well and cannot do even basic algebra, and you may have thought to yourself “how is that possible?” While it may be difficult to believe, a number of students graduate high school without having the basic knowledge and skills needed to earn a college degree or to live meaningfully and conveniently (World Bank, 2018). In fact, a recent study shows that 21% of American adults—or 43 million US adults—are considered illiterate despite having achieved a certain level of education (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2019).
This concern could be easily associated with schools’ failure to be a place of learning. For a long time, schools have focused on teaching rather than learning—assuming that in every ounce of teaching, students acquire an ounce of learning as well (Wharton School, 2008). The good thing is a growing number of educators and school systems across the world have started shifting to an approach that focuses on what really matters—student learning. This educational strategy and philosophy is called mastery learning.
But what is mastery learning really? How does it reshape our view of education and learning? In this article, the definition and origins of mastery learning will be discussed, as well as its elements, principles, prospects, and challenges. Teachers, administrators, and other educational stakeholders will find this comprehensive guide of value.
Moving away from the practices of traditional learning, mastery learning aims to address the limitations of teacher-centered approaches. It requires students to completely comprehend a lesson, regardless of the time and resources needed, before moving to the next level (Chargois, 2013). Furthermore, this educational model necessitates teachers to personalize the students’ learning experience, allowing some learners to have additional time to understand the lesson or develop a particular skill. In a manner, mastery learning empowers students to progress at their own pace.
Although the movement to adopt mastery-based approaches in education systems got its momentum only in recent past decades, the concept of mastery learning is not new. Its practice was first outlined by Benjamin Bloom in the 1960s, stating that students can master any task given the right conditions (Kampen, 2019). Bloom’s Learning for Mastery (LFM) strategy evolved and was later on implemented in primary and secondary school settings. Its basic features are as follows (McNeil, 1969, as cited in Chargois, 2013):
Students should understand the task and the procedures needed to complete the task.
There should be specific objectives for the task to be learned.
The subjects should be broken down into smaller sections, and students should be assessed after each lesson.
Teachers should provide students with feedback after each assessment.
Teachers should give students additional time to learn the lesson when needed.
Teachers could provide alternative learning opportunities if necessary.
It is recommended to let students work in groups for more than an hour, focusing on reviewing test results to increase student effort.
Aside from Bloom’s LFM, another prevalent mastery learning strategy is the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). Developed by psychologist Fred Keller in the 1960s, the PSI is mostly implemented at the university level, focusing on five key principles (Kampen, 2019):
Students should be allowed to work at their own pace.
Lessons should be considered as ‘vehicles of motivation.’
Teachers and students should consider using written communication in textbooks and study guides.
Teachers and students should get closer through repeated testing, immediate scoring, continuous tutoring, and progress tracking.
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Effects of Mastery Learning on Students
Effects of Mastery Learning on Students Take responsibility for learning: 82
Take responsibility for learning
Effects of Mastery Learning on Students Effective use of technology: 77
Effective use of technology
Effects of Mastery Learning on Students Receive teacher support and encouragement: 77
Receive teacher support and encouragement
Effects of Mastery Learning on Students Learn new things: 62
Learn new things
What Are the Elements of Mastery Learning?
At its core, mastery learning presumes that students can truly master any academic content if they are provided with favorable learning conditions. As researchers and educators alike continuously propose new ways to improve the application of mastery-based approaches in schools, research has consistently linked effective instruction and learning to the six elements of mastery learning model (Guskey, 2010).
Theoretically, pre-assessments help teachers determine students’ prior knowledge, experience, skill levels, and potential misconceptions before beginning instruction (Guskey, 2016). Through this, teachers develop a substantial understanding of the students’ knowledge and abilities. This can be done through short quizzes or short discussions of previous learning experiences.
Diagnostic assessments are not only present in the mastery learning model. Almost every modern educational approach integrates some form of pre-assessment. As a matter of fact, studies have regarded pre-assessments as a way to make the learning environment ‘invitational’ and to provide students with a metacognitive foundation for self-monitoring (Hattie, 2009; Tomlinson & Moon, 2013). In addition, Guskey (2016) noted that pre-assessment can assist teachers in:
Determining students’ prior knowledge and skills
Monitoring student progress
Focusing students’ attention on learning targets
Checking for misconceptions
Identifying students’ interests, talents, and preferred ways of learning
Group-based initial instruction
Although mastery-based approaches focus on personalized learning, the initial instruction is usually not done exclusively for each student. During the initial instruction, students are taught ‘high-quality, developmentally appropriate,’ and well-researched discussions in a group-based classroom—just like regular classes. But the instruction must be multifaceted, context-adapted, and student-oriented (Guskey, 2010).
Regular formative assessments
Another element viewed as an essential strategy by many modern instructional models is the use of regular formative assessments. Formative assessments inform teachers about what students learned well, and what students need to learn better. With this, teachers can determine the next steps to undertake to increase student achievement.
Typically, assessments are administered after a week or two of instruction. This could be in the form of quizzes, written assignments, oral presentations, skill demonstrations, or performances, depending on the subject area, the grade level, and the learning outcomes involved (Guskey, 2010).
In mastery learning classes, lectures do not end with quizzes or assignments. Next to performing formative assessments, teachers provide ‘high-quality corrective instructions’ to mend learning problems that the assessments have identified. After all, what is mastery learning if not ensuring students’ academic progress.
Different from ‘reteaching,’ corrective instruction approaches are versatile enough to accommodate different student learning styles, modalities, and intelligence levels (Sternberg, 1994, as cited in Guskey, 2010). Corrective learning activities usually take 10% to 20% additional time than initial learning units. However, these personalized lectures lessen the amount of time needed for remediation in the later units, allowing teachers to cover just as much material as they would using traditional teaching methods (Guskey, 2010).
Parallel formative assessments
Basically, the first assessment in mastery learning does not conclude the evaluation of student achievement. After corrective learning classes, mastery learning teachers conduct a second, parallel formative assessment to determine the effectiveness of the corrective instruction. Through this, students are also given a second chance to experience success and show mastery of the subject matter (Guskey, 2010).
Mastery learning educators also provide effective enrichment activities to learners who have mastered the material and do not need corrective instruction. Aiming to provide challenging yet rewarding learning experiences, these activities enable students to explore a greater depth of related topics that pique their interests. Enrichment activities could be in the form of academic games and exercises, various multimedia projects, and peer discussions (Guskey, 2010).
What Are the Principles of Mastery Learning?
As teachers and schools in the United States gradually move to mastery learning, it becomes important for school systems to establish a philosophical and pedagogical foundation in implementing the instructional model. For this reason, the Great Schools Partnership (2016) created the ‘Ten Principles of Mastery Learning,’ which describe the features commonly found in the most effective mastery-based systems.
Students and families are consistently informed of all learning expectations. These include the long-term expectations (e.g., graduation competencies), the short-term expectations (e.g., learning objectives), and the general expectations (e.g., the school’s grading and reporting system).
The students’ academic performances are assessed against common learning standards and performance expectations. This applies to all students regardless of whether they are enrolled in traditional courses or pursuing alternative learning experiences.
Since assessments are competency-based and criterion-referenced, student success is defined by the achievement of expected competencies.
Formative assessments are used to measure learning progress. Results from these assessments determine how to improve instructions, teaching practices, and academic support.
Summative assessments are used to evaluate learning achievement. Results from these assessments record students’ level of mastery at a specific point in time.
Students’ work habits, character traits, and behaviors, such as attendance and class participation are monitored and reported separately from academic progress and achievement.
Academic grades translate as a student’s learning progress and are used to improve and facilitate the learning process.
When students fail to meet expected standards, they are given another chance to improve their work.
Personalized learning options, differentiated assessments, and alternative learning methods can help realize student learning progress.
Students are empowered to make important decisions about their learning, including contributing to the design of learning experiences and pathways.
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Effects of Mastery Learning on Teachers
Effects of Mastery Learning on Teachers Effective use of technology: 100
Effective use of technology
Effects of Mastery Learning on Teachers Equip students with skills they need in the real world: 100
Equip students with skills they need in the real world
Effects of Mastery Learning on Teachers Teach students effective study skills: 86
Teach students effective study skills
Effects of Mastery Learning on Teachers Effectively teach students at all levels: 71
Effectively teach students at all levels
Mastery Learning: Prospects and Challenges
Over the past decades, a number of studies have been published, claiming that mastery learning produced a positive effect on students’ academic performance (Kampen, 2019). In fact, a number of meta-analyses have indicated that mastery-based learning approaches are effective and have an impact of up to six months’ additional progress (Education Endowment Foundation, 2018). In addition, mastery learning is seen as a direct, optimistic, and clear instructional approach that has a positive effect on students’ self-esteem (Sajadi et al., 2015).
However, implementing mastery-based instruction has been seen to be exhausting since it requires more effort both from the teachers and the students. Aside from this, the model requires a large amount of time to ensure that all students deliver mastery of the topic. Educational resources, including time, and teacher’s attention are also denied to strong learners and bestowed on weak ones (Sajadi et al., 2015).
Despite these challenges, mastery learning posits promising results concerning student learning progress. The mastery learning model might look complex at first glance. But with the right amount of support and foundation, this transformational approach might be the future of education.
Great Schools Partnership. (2016). Ten principles of mastery-based learning. https://www.greatschoolspartnership.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/CT-GSP_Ten_Principles_of_Mastery-Based-Learning-1.pdf
Guskey, T. R. (2016). Pre-assessment: Promises and cautions. Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology Faculty Publications. 73(7), 38-43. https://uknowledge.uky.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1016&context=edp_facpub
Guskey, T. R. (2010). Lessons of mastery learning. Educational Leadership: Interventions that Work, 68(2), 52-57. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/236273526_Lessons_of_Mastery_Learning
Hattie, J. (2009). Visible learning: A synthesis of over 800 meta-analyses relating to achievement. https://apprendre.auf.org/wp-content/opera/13-BF-References-et-biblio-RPT-2014/Visible%20Learning_A%20synthesis%20or%20over%20800%20Meta-analyses%20Relating%20to%20Achievement_Hattie%20J%202009%20…pdf
Kampen, M. (2019). How mastery learning helps every student succeed. Prodigy Education. https://www.prodigygame.com/main-en/blog/mastery-learning/
National Center for Educational Statistics (2019). Adult literacy in the United States. https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2019/2019179.pdf
Tomlinson, C. A., Moon, T. R., & Imbeau, M. B. (2015). Assessment and student success in a differentiated classroom. http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/siteASCD/publications/assessment-and-di-whitepaper.pdf
Warton School of the University of Pennsylvania (2008). The objective of education is learning, not teaching. [email protected]https://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/the-objective-of-education-is-learning-not-teaching/
World Bank (2018). World development report 2018: Learning to realize education’s promise. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/28340/9781464810961.pdf