All data points, statistics, trends, and predictions presented in this article have been gathered by the G2R research team led by Imed Bouchrika, Ph.D. You are free to quote, share, and distribute the information here for your own purposes without any limitations.
Companies allot a considerable amount of their budgets to employee training. Based on industry data published in Training Magazine (2019), over 100,000 companies in the United States spent $1,286 per learner on training expenditures. For video specifically, the overall average cost is $30,420 for an instructional video, which is $507 (the average hourly cost to produce any kind of training) multiplied by 60, the number of hours it takes to create an instructional video on average (Brandon Hall Group, 2017).
Today, 82% of companies still use learning management systems (LMS). However, newer methods like virtual classrooms, webcasting, and video broadcasting are catching up in popularity. These tools posted the highest growth in usage compared to LMS, rapid elearning, application simulation, and mobile applications last year. In 2019, the adoption of these technologies posted a growth of 6%. In contrast, LMS grew only by 1% and rapid elearning tools only by 3% (Training Magazine, 2019). Rapid elearning tools like Articulate 360, Adobe Captivate 9, Lectora Inspire 17, and iSpring allow you to quickly convert PowerPoint slides to online course content.
Given the time and money that companies pour into video training, it begs the question of whether or not investing in video training is worth it. What environmental conditions and employee behaviors do companies have to factor in when considering video training? Most importantly, how can companies ensure that video training is effective? To answer these questions, this article will discuss the important video training statistics you should know in 2020.
Table of Contents
The State of Video Learning at Work
Surveys have shown that video is a widely used learning platform for corporate training (Mimeo, 2019; Training Magazine, 2019). Likewise, it is adaptive to different learning methodologies, and it can readily be integrated with the latest technologies that impact learning. This makes video training a positive addition to an organization’s training toolkit. Today, a majority of companies are using video to train employees.
- In a survey of over 2,000 companies, 74% of trainers said that they use video learning as part of their training delivery (Mimeo, 2019).
- Industry data shows that the use of virtual classrooms, webcasting, and video broadcasting is highest among large companies (Training Magazine, 2019). In 2019, 88% of large companies used these technologies.
- On the other hand, 77% of midsize companies and 64% of small companies reported using these tools.
- In 2019, self-paced learning and instructor-led virtual training were some of the top training methods used (Mimeo, 2019). Sixty-three percent of training teams used self-paced virtual training while 61% used instructor-led virtual training.
- Instructor-led training was still the most prevalent at 93%. One likely explanation for this is that elearning is more costly and time-intensive to create.
VR, AR and AI
Companies are also making plans to incorporate virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and artificial intelligence (AI) into their training. VR is a fully simulated environment, while AR is a real-world environment enhanced by computer-generated objects.
- In fact, 24% of trainers are looking to implement VR or AR simulation experiences in 2020 and 2021 (Mimeo, 2019).
- The early adopters of these technologies tend to be large companies. Currently, 23% of them already use VR, 11% use AR, and 9% use AI (Lewis, 2019).
- Walmart has been using VR since 2017 to train employees on new technology and processes, as well as to conduct assessments. The retail giant has used VR to see how associates react to angry shoppers based on busy times like Black Friday sales. They have also used it to find out if an employee has the right skills to move up to a middle management position. Walmart has seen an increase of 5 to 10% in test scores when VR is used in the classroom (Lewis, 2019).
- Another company that is using VR for training is UPS, which uses the technology to train drivers in spotting potential hazards while simulating driving on a virtual road. AI is another technology that appears promising as well to impact video training. Twenty-seven percent of HR leaders say that AI can positively impact learning and development (Oracle, 2018).
With AI, companies can create personalized employee learning that blends video training with other methods. AI can learn a trainee’s strengths, weaknesses, and learning preferences to recommend the appropriate training courses for the employee. One such example is LinkedIn learning, which suggests courses based on what skills the user needs and what courses their peers are taking (Barnard, 2019). Testing in video-based and other types of training can likewise be improved through AI. For instance, the automatic detection of the affective state of the user via AI-based classification of facial expressions can be used to analyze if a video is the right tool to deliver training. Moreover, an AI-powered training program can design tests for individual learners based on a trainee’s skill level. Subsequent courses taken after the assessment can then be tailored based on the trainee’s test results.
Source: Training Magazine, 2019 Designed by
Video-Based Training Challenges of Employees
Video training is not without obstacles, as these findings have indicated. Any organization that is integrating or plans to integrate video in their training toolkit must anticipate the following issues if they want to optimize learning outcomes.
- A huge number of employees do not work behind a desk. Currently, 80% of the global workforce, or 2.7 billion people, are deskless workers (Emergence, 2018). For example, salespeople on the road or retail associates on the store floor do not always have access to a dedicated computer to watch video training.
- A study found that training frequency increased by 42% when done through mobile (Axonify, 2018).
- Employees are distracted when watching a training video. In a survey published by Kaltura in 2019, 67% of employees said they do not give a training video their full attention. They skim through videos, watch videos without sound, or listen to it while doing something else.
- Only 28% say that they always pay attention to training videos.
- On the other hand, 6% say that they never pay attention to training videos.
- It is difficult to find videos based on search keywords with accurate search results. For instance, the captions that YouTube or ASR software generate usually have a 60 to 70% accuracy rate. That means that one out of every three words generated is incorrect (Bond, 2019).
How Effective is Video Training?
Over time, humans forget what they have learned, which creates an obstacle to making video training effective. One of the famous theories that explain this phenomenon is the Ebbinghaus forgetting curve. Sometime in 1879, German psychologist Hermann Ebbinghaus discovered that people quickly forget what they learned 20 minutes after they have learned it (Finkenbinder, 1913). When applied to training, this means that on average, employees will forget 90% of the information learned during training within one month (Cloke, 2018).
The research below has shown that video training has a positive impact on employees gaining procedural knowledge. In a similar vein, video training was shown to help learners retain information for up to a month.
- Trainees who played a video simulation game had higher declarative and personal knowledge than those trained using other ways. One interesting application of video is the use of video games for corporate training. For instance, one study found that trainees who used simulation games had declarative knowledge that was 11% higher than the comparison group. They also had 14% higher procedural knowledge versus the comparison group (Sitzmann, 2011).
- Another study compared documentary-style video versus lecture-style video. The study found that the group that watched the documentary-style video performed better than the group that watched a lecture-style video, garnering an average of 3.5 out of 4 aspects of team coordination taught to both groups versus 2.5 out of 4, respectively.
- Likewise, employees who watched a video with a quiz scored higher than their colleagues who only watched the video and/or only talked about the video with others. A recent study on workplace digital learning compared a video group that watched the video only, a structured discussion group that discussed the video with an instructor and a spontaneous discussion group that talked about the video without a formal structure. Test results showed that employees in the structured discussion group retained knowledge 25% better than the other two groups. On the other hand, those in the interpolated testing group also performed better by 26% (Okano et al., 2018).
- A similar study explored the effect of an educational video on enhancing student retention. In the study, 223 undergraduate nursing students were divided into two groups and received refresher information. The experimental group watched a video that demonstrated the nursing technique of “moving an uncooperative patient from the supine to the lateral position (Salina et al., 2012).” In contrast, the control group read written information, which had the same words and sequence of the video content. The results showed that the experimental group outperformed the control group by 6.19 points. The experimental group scored 42.95 on all items, while the control group scored 36.76.
Source: Harvard Business Review
How to Make Video Training Effective
1. Segment videos into chunks that last less than six minutes
A study shows that peak engagement is at six minutes and dwindles down afterward. In 2014, researchers analyzed 6.9 million video watching sessions on the edX massive open online course (MOOC) platform. It is said to be the largest study of video engagement in terms of scale. The researchers looked at viewer engagement to know which kinds of MOOC videos lead to the best student learning outcomes. They measured engagement by analyzing how long a student watched the video (Guo et al., 2014). The results show that no matter the length of the video, the median engagement time is at most six minutes.
Videos that were less than three minutes long showed the highest engagement, with 75% of viewing sessions lasting three-fourths of the video length. However, engagement starts to drop during the ninth to 12th minute. At this point, students often fail to watch less than halfway through the video. Thus, the researchers recommended that instructors plan their lessons before making a video and dividing it into chunks under six minutes (Guo et al., 2014).
Though the participants of the study were students, the researchers noted that video engagement has relevance beyond the academe. They cited as an example, YouTube, where the revenue of a video is tied to engagement as a measure of viewer satisfaction. Thus, this insight can be useful to those producing video for corporate training.
2. Incorporate quiz questions throughout the video content
A study shows that intermittent testing leads to better retention. Moreover, it makes video interactive, which more employees prefer. Okano and company’s study on workplace digital learning used video with interpolated testing on one group. After approximately one-minute intervals, employees were presented with multiple-choice questions asking about the content that they just watched. After they choose an answer, they are shown the correct one with a green checkmark. Employees stayed on the screen with the correct answer until they clicked a button to move on to the next part of the video (Okano et al., 2018).
With interpolated testing, employees who watched the video and answered the quizzes retained information after 20 to 35 hours. They also fared better in a test that had free-form and multiple questions. In the said test, some questions were asked in the video, while some were new questions.
Thus, the researchers concluded that interpolated testing enhanced learning for all information, not just for the information asked during interpolated testing.
Moreover, giving quizzes is a great way to make your video interactive, which 82% of employees prefer over traditional videos (Kaltura, 2019).
3. Add whiteboard-style instructor sketches
Khan-style tutorials feel more personal and lead to higher engagement than PowerPoint slides and/or code screencasts. Another important takeaway from Guo and company’s empirical study of MOOC videos is that Khan-style videos are more engaging. Salman Khan, founder of the Khan Academy YouTube channel, uses a tablet to draw text, numbers, or doodles on the screen. These visuals supplement his video discussion on the topic.
The study shows that students engaged with Khan-style tutorials for 1.5 to twice as long compared to tutorials with PowerPoint slides and/or code screencasts.
Also, 40% of Khan-style tutorial viewing sessions were followed by an attempt to answer a multiple-choice problem. In contrast, only 31% of other tutorials were followed by problem attempts.
Video producers and program managers at edX noted that drawings with the instructor’s own handwriting felt more personal than computer-generated fonts (Guo et al., 2014). Corporate trainers who wish to make Khan-style tutorials can do so with a tablet and a program like Microsoft paint as the digital whiteboard. The instructor’s scribbling on the digital whiteboard can then be recorded with a screen recording and video editing software like Camtasia (Agarwal, 2011).
4. Incorporate video games into your training plan
Just make sure to give active instructions, make it accessible on-demand, and make it part of a holistic training program. To maximize video simulation games, Sitzmann suggests providing active rather than passive instructions where trainees can learn work-related competencies as they played the game. Secondly, learners should be able to play the game as many times as they wish. Lastly, simulation games work best when it’s treated as part of a holistic program rather than being a stand-alone training method. Thus, employees should still receive instruction before and after the game to ensure that they understand the entire scope of their responsibilities (University of Colorado Denver, 2010).
The Verdict on Video
The use of video for training employees is a trend that shows no indication of going away soon. Studies have shown that video training helps employees gain knowledge as well as retain them more effectively than other methods of instruction. As such, it is a worthwhile training method to incorporate into your training program. Companies looking to leverage video training must consider employee mobility, inattention, and search accuracy issues when designing video training. It will also be beneficial for companies to follow research-backed best practices to make their training videos highly effective and worth the investment, namely:
- Keep it short.
- Add quizzes.
- Make whiteboard sketches.
- Keep it fun with video game training.
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- Finkenbinder, E. (1913). The curve of forgetting. The American Journal of Psychology, 24 (1), 8–32. https://doi.org/10.2307/1413271
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- Okano K., Kaczmarzyk, J. R., & Gabrieli, J. D. E (2018) Enhancing workplace digital learning by use of the science of learning. PLoS ONE 13 (10), e0206250. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0206250
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